Comments on Responsive Images in Practice

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  1. superb article, makes it really clear how to do all this stuff. thanks Eric!

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  2. I’ll probably start using this on my own site and for parts of client sites, but I’m wondering how to allow clients/users to upload their own images and still take advantage of this functionality.

    Are there any CMSs that support responsive images, even minimally?

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  3. I’m still trying to get my head around responsive and you’re talking above my head for most of it. From what I understood, could this code be integrated into wordpress, where the thumb, medium and large media duplication that wordpress does can be integrated. Do you think there will be a plugin made for responsive images for wordpress until they add responsive media handling into the wordpress core?

    Thanks, I’m going to re-read this a bit later when I’ve got some more practice under my belt!

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  4. Thanks for a great article!

    The only thing I’d add is that plugins or filters such as mod_pagespeed on the web server can take over some of the heavy-lifting regarding resizing or transcoding images. Ie. you always develop with webp images but the server will only serve webp to browsers than can digest it, it serves JPEG or PNG to the others. It can do more depending on what the browser tells it. This can vastly simplify workflow and markup.

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  5. Very good article. That said, I have one recommendation not covered in the article that I discovered in my testing: versions of Chromium (which Chrome and Opera, and many third-party mobile browsers like Puffin, Amazon Silk, Samsung/HTC/Cyanogenmod’s default browser are a part of) that support srcset’s with the “X” suffix but before it supported the “w” (so versions 35-37) will always load the very first image defined if it does not understand the “w” and no “x” match.  This can cause these browsers to load the wrong image. To avoid issues with these browsers I would recommend you either always include the same image as the src with it’s width in the “w” operator, or always include a “1x” version. This will avoid that bug. This might be rare for your users, but it’s relatively simple to structure your output that way to avoid that bug (which at the very least will affect Cyanogenmod users).

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  6. Great article. Thanks for contributing!

    Should we be concerned about the debate between srcN, srcset and picture?

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  7. Thank you so much Eric for summing things up in a clear article. I have to admit that it took me a little while to get the new srcset + size syntax since it changed a little bit over time.
    Like 29th Floor, I can’t help to wonder how our CMSs will support this, and to go one step further, how we will be able to explain this to clients who tend to simply throw a 3000px in the WordPress drag and drop upload field and voilà. I bet we’re heading towards lot of server side development and client education :)

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  8. Really nice article , regarding wordpress there are some plugins that move the above said way , though not perfect. Thank you Erick for such a great article

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  9. Great article.
    You might want to check the first CSS snippet for box-size. It should be box-sizing.

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  10. An informative article… yes. But how large a step backwards are we taking to take a different one forwards?
    Backwards? Yes. For many years, we have been taking gradual steps to separate our content from its presentation. We decry table-based layout (as we should). We embrace CSS over in-HTML formatting. Of course, all the hacks that come along work against this principle; styles are applied to code instead of classes, etc.
    And now this!
    The concept of the sizes attribute - that how wide it will render must be embedded directly in the HTML, thereby brutally coupling the content to its presentation - is a step backwards. It is equivalent to a solution that relies on table-based layouts.

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  11. The best article I’ve read about responsive images. Very useful, thanks!

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  12. The problem I see is very limited support at this point. Chrome supports the suggestions fully, Safari is only supporting srcset with 1x and no one else is listed as supporting any of it. That is a lot of work for little support.

    That said, about 50% of my traffic would benefit from srcset, so I may work on implementing it on areas I can.

    One solution for a CMS is to use a server side resizing script. At least in images that you are writing out the img tag yourself and can append the URL string of the different sizes. This will automate the needed resources and help prevent your users from making stupid mistakes.

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  13. @Rick,

    That is actually a very good point. It hadn’t occurred to me during all of this. While srcset is fine to me as that is content, sizes really does feel like it’s too presentational to be appropriate.

    Truthfully, I feel that we are in an era where too many people are rushing to get things to run better on mobile that we are throwing away years of best practice and practicality to try and get things running well there. and not thinking thing through enough. This is ESPECIALLY true recent changes/recommendations from Google.


    Safari will support the full range in an upcoming version, and Firefox support is coming. You can turn it on with a flag in about:config, it just hasn’t shipped for some reason. It’s only IE where things are totally left in the dark.

    Our CMS has gone with the server side resizing script option. We probably going overboard with how many versions we create (320, 360, 414, 480, 600, 640, 768, 1024, and [orig_width - 100*n]  > 320), and author’s original desired size * 1.5x, 2x, and 3x as long as the those values are < the original file size. The issue with all of this is that it’s a lot of load on the server. Our images our generated upon request and we cache the resize so it’s only done once, but that is slow for a lot of users who may not see it so we load 10 of those versions that have not yet been cached in the background afterwords to improve load time for the next visitor. It was either that or make things slow inside the CMS itself, which we’d rather not do.

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  14. Another brilliant article Eric — you have a great ability to make this stuff simple to understand.

    The greatest part about all of this is it’s a no brainer to implement it today. If the browser doesn’t offer support, there’s the SRC, if it does then hoorah!

    I am really keen to see how CMS are going to approach the implementation. I wasn’t overly happy with Drupals approach however I understand that the decision was made a little while ago and at some point you need to focus on a deliverable and build something.

    There are some plugins available for Wordpress and is my favourite at the moment. It allows the content editor to add in the standard <img> markup that provides backwards compatibility however when the page is generated for the front end it pulls the sizes and srcset attributes from a central location.

    Any CMS that provides a template capability will be safe for images that form part of the template, because essentially that’s a rule you set for the design and it resides in a single location (the template).

    My concern is the inline images that are associated with content and having a CMS add the current design ‘sizes’ that may change as part of the next redesign. It’s (almost) as bad as having inline styles to style headings.

    I’m excited to see how each CMS tackles the issue, and hope they all head to the community (read RICG) for direction on best practices.

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  15. First, thanks to Eric for a well written, thoroughly researched article. Nicely done!

    However… It seems like every time there is an article on how to implement responsive images “in practice”, the solution is tied to additional resources and requires verbose markup with a perplexing syntax. Look at that markup on the last example. Including a single image takes 27 lines of code and 12 different versions of the image. Is this something that any of you would really implement “in practice” on your production sites today?

    More so than the markup, the creation of different image sizes requires the use of something like Sencha Src. Or you’re stuck rolling your own EC2 instance for this purpose. What if the client doesn’t want to pay for or AWS, then what?

    While this article was very informative, I still didn’t see anything that can be used on any given project, any time. Not the fault of the author, just the reality of the situation right now.

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  16. I think the cms world needs to adapt to this with some decent plugins with an easy gui (especialy for art directed responsive images).

    Otherwise this won’t spread the web because responsive images are a content editors nightmare (The very cool craftCMS has already a image transformation script in the core but it would need a step forward).

    And besides: Writing sizes in html is just gross.

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  17. I’m still reading, but “Or, we can cheat by making the window really big and peeking at the dev tools:” had me laughing out loud. Love it!

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  18. A great, clear and simple article to distinct all those parameters. Thanks so much Eric!

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  19. I have been using a JavaScript approach. Curious what your thoughts are on this:

    – When uploading images, my CMS is built to create several (about a half dozen) versions of the same image: One very small (1px by 1px) and others for common viewport sizes in something like /samplePage/img/1024/

    –JavaScript checks the size of the window, and changes the image path to replace the 1px place-fillers with the appropriate size for each respective class.

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  20. Very nice and complete article.
    I’m still testing pictureFill and picturePolyfill with old browsers (IE7/8) and I can’t find a solution that work everywhere
    Another article here about IMG src and PICTURE:

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  21. Unfortunately you missed to explain what vw actually is (viewport width, I guess?) when bringing it up.

    And, well, unfortunately for all of us, sizes turned out to be the most complicated attribute in the history of html. I mean, this: sizes="(min-width: 41.25em) 38.75em, calc(100vw - 2.5em)" Really? There was no easy way to do this? No way without complicated maths?

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  22. Not trying to come across as a doom sayer, but I have long been predicting this kind of confusion, and built a nuclear bunker cause of it. LOL. With that said, a fantastic article. And I love how you worked in the 3rd pass which I think is most important: the idea that you need to create a best #webperf scenario and/or conditions at all cost by using a mix of formats. I recall Chris Coyier saying that he was annoyed with all of this, and was saving files out imgs at 150dpi - just using them for 1x and 2x. That’s likely why he’s such a fan of SVGs.
    Responsive design has been taking a beating, and unjustly so, for their page weight. But the actual challenge has been getting devs to write 20 lines of code instead of one to serve *a* correct img. Add to that you have to create the formats, adding to the work flow - and the laziness fall back of .jpg takes over. That to me is the single biggest hurdle. But do hope that articles like this one will drill home the idea that this is the new reality.

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  23. re: #30 Michael Femia -
    Ilya Grigorik also likes the idea of automation, and has talked about it - since some of the bigger CDNs are employ it as well, but as someone added, I would love to see the img before uploading live - just in case. So, although I have yet to use or needed to use a CDN or another other back end solution for img optim, I almost rather have a droplet of a desktop script to be able to make some tweaks of my own.

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  24. Henri, I use Imagick (PHP Library) for compression and multiple sizing of images on upload. On the JavaScript side of things, there’s just a set of very simple switch statements that choose what size images to download: i.e. what size .imageClass should be downloaded when the window is ____ pixels?

    For me, this works fine, and it’s pretty intuitive, at least for me. Just curious whether there are pitfalls to my method. (I’m not running a global commerce site or something, so I don’t care about people who have disabled JavaScript)

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  25. A great and comprehensive article on responsive images but what about webperf (spriting, lazy loading) and loading time depending on speed connection. We can’t decide to load an image only with screen size and DPI. On my 4G smartphone 640px width I have more speed than on my 1920px desktop screen at home with DSL.

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  26. nice and interesting article

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  27. Excellent article regarding using srcset and sizes but I still have concerns which I haven’t seen addressed anywhere,

    In the first example where art direction isn’t a concern we see that on small width retina devices (which would be the majority of the mobile traffic to our sites these days) you they make a sizeable saving reducing the page total to about 1.1MB.

    However, a simple change in device orientation will result in them hitting the larger ‘breakpoint’ that uses the next set of images resulting in little to no savings at all.

    Or am I missing something here.

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  28. @Brian Hughes - One thing to ask is, how many users change their orientation while reading on a regular basis? Most people I watch use a tablet or phone stick to one orientation for the majority of what they are doing.

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  29. re: #31 stefan cova
    Try respimage, it supports IE8+ out of the box and adds support to IE6+ using a plugin. Other than picturePolyfill it is a true polyfill, similiar to picturefill. (I.e: resimage is a bugfixed picturefill with a lot of improvements.)

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  30. re: #32 @Bärli Legal

    This was done for performance reasons. If the browser has to wait for the stylesheet to be loaded and parsed to simply automatically calculate the “size” of the image, responsive images wouldn’t work with the preload parser.

    Additionally even if the browser would wait, the browser can’t calculate the size of hidden (display none) elements.

    Luckily, as soon as you use lazy loading you can calculate it with javascript.

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  31. re: David 2 #36
    Spriting is a technique for background images. picture and srcset are for content images.

    For lazyloading you can use lazyizes

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  32. I have the exact same question as David 2. My phone has a significantly faster connection than my desktop with its large monitor. My phone could handle 3.5 MB with ease, unlike my desktop. However, the solution described in this article seems to assume that larger screen size = larger bandwidth. Why is bandwidth checking not built in to the picture element?

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  33. re: Brian Hughes #38
    While I’m also concerned about retina quality and increasing image size due to responsive image usage. Your usecase shouldn’t be a big concern though.
    Despite the fact, that most users won’t change orientation. This is something the browser can optimize for. An example: I have created a polyfill for responsive images with a smart selection algorithm.

    And there are three interesting parts here: The smart selection works basically as follows:
    1. If you have a 2 dpr device and there are two image candidates one with 1.9x and another with 2.8x, the 1.9x will be chosen as “good enough”.
    2. Additionally there is also another part in the selection algorithm (lazy change on resize): if the image already has a viewable source and the browser is resized and therefore the 1.9x becomes 1.6x and the 2.8x becomes 2.5x normally the selection would choose the 2.6x image, but because there is already a fully loaded image the selection becomes more lazier by adding the currently shown image virtual “advantage” pixels.
    3. In case the browser is loaded in portrait mode the 1. algorithm is run less aggressive.

    As you see the browser can optimize for this. As soon as the standard is much more in use, a lot data can be analyzed and browser vendors can improve their selection routines on the typical use cases the collected data.

    my personal concerns about the retina problem
    Letting the browser make the decision, which candidate to load is really great, but for making good decisions the browser needs enough crucial/relevant informations. And while the browser might have enough information about the image size, the device and the user’s preferences, he has not enough information about the image itself.

    If you compare same images with 1x and there 2x counter parts, you will see, that there are big differences between different images. Most images simply do not gain much quality after a certain density (1.5), while others still on higher density do gain more perceived quality. Treating those big differences the same can’t be good. It would be simply nice to tell the browser wether a certain image has characteristics that it needs to be loaded full retina to have a good quality or the image has characteristics that it doesn’t gain much quality with higher densities.

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  34. re: jallred
    I think you mean, “Why is bandwidth checking not built in to the srcset attribute?”

    Because picture is all about art direction.

    To answer your question: The solution does not assume smaller screensize = lower bandwidth.

    The solution is simple: For less pixels on the screen (screen size * devicePixelRatio) you need a smaller image to satisfy the possible quality on the device.

    And there is nothing in the spec saying, that lowbandwidth or GPU performance or what ever aren’t not part of the responsive solution.

    Quite the contrary the responsive image spec explicitly names bandwidth to be takken into account when choosing the right image candidate.

    The current implementations doesn’t do this, because even for a browser this information isn’t so easy to collect.

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  35. Great article! Really made me understand the tags once for alle (I think…)- Did some test drives and tried to add some very simple explanations as well.

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  36. I’ve been playing with various responsive image methodologies on my personal site.

    I have ended up with a workflow that handles my simple needs nicely. It is based on a “watched” local folder. I drop my full-size images into that folder, then a small PHP script produces various image size versions for me and generates a HTML snippet of the relevant <img> source which is then piped to my system clipboard for pasting directly into my CMS.

    Then I am using the Picturefill polyfill on my website to select the appropriate image from the srcset. This workflow works well enough for me.

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  37. Great article, i wonder if responsive images will become unnecessary in the near future because of higher resolution screens on mobile (that match desktop screens) and faster and faster internet speeds…Also, If you use the ExpressionEngine CMS, the Channel Images plugin would allow you to upload images and auto-generate any size image you need automatically. It’s super easy to setup and works great.

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  38. Very nice article, i was consider about Responsive images because about 60% of mobile devices web traffic is generated by images (sic!) - on most websites images aren’t responsive.
    It took me some time to find just the right solution for RWI and finally I had found Bildero.
    Bildero is very powerfull image server and one of its features are responsive images. Just by attaching simple javascript on your websites you are able to server responsive images to your visitors.

    How it works?
    This simply JS is checking for screen resolution of your visitor and then it perfectly fit images to the div’s. It’s really easy in implementation and images are processed on the fly so you need only one source image on the Bildero server.

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  39. Great article. However I don’t like at all about this solution.
    1 - this is way too complex and heavy markup language. Can you imagine yourselves doing that in 300 images in a web site? This will be a nightmare to manage.
    2 - It goes against the separation of content and visual markup. It is a mess.

    I see it as an important step to solve the responsive images problem but I think we can do much better than that and I believe that the path is automation. Something that should be explored at browser, server side or even a new image format.

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  40. Kaspar Allenbach 11:35 am on November 05, 2014 say:
    I’ll probably start using this on my own site and for parts of client sites, but I’m wondering how to allow clients/users to upload their own images and still take advantage of this functionality. Are there any CMSs that support responsive images, even minimally?
    Adaptive display of photos and pictures. Bbcode tag photo

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  41. This kind of thing—tailoring image content to fit specific environments—is called “art direction.” Any time we crop or otherwise alter an image to fit a breakpoint (rather than simply resizing the whole thing), we’re art directing.

    This gave me the idea of a cropping method based on a descendant list of important zones (maybe not new)

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  42. There are so many things wrong with these new responsive image systems.

    Picture is what scares me the most. This notion of art directed images is bad news, even the example here is highlighting that. If I, as a content creator want you to see an image of let’s say this tapestry and it is a wide thing - that’s what I want you to see - not a square of it just because you have a smaller viewing screen and that is exactly what is going to happen. People everywhere serving up completely different images to what was intended and that is saying whatever the intended image was is not important and if that’s true, why did you put it on the page in the first place?

    I spoke at UXCambridge about this last year and how selective cropping in the media has resulted in some pretty spectacular and sensationalised misrepresentations of events, this is allowing people to do that with anything and it is going to end horribly. I would rather have a big image that I can ‘pinch zoom’, because my device has been designed to enable that as a result of its small view window, than wanting to, for example, look at the new Kawasaki H2R only you decided to show me only the left hand indicator light because my device is small. This is just so, so bad for imagery and in particular photography on the web.

    As so many have noted including @powrsurg I agree that this is not going to be thought through enough because someone somewhere needs to factor this into a system designed for people who actually produce and publish content and they do not have a clue what any of this means, they just want to make an image and add it to a page. Like with your CMS, most have image sizing options and even Wordpress has had this for yonks, but again, this only solves one problem which is that of I have a file I have been given to use and it is 6MB and if I was to print it 1:1 it would be the size of a skyscraper billboard.

    I’ve been trying to write something about my concerns with Picture in particular for a while but have found it hard to structure the argument. In producing these examples here it has helped me be able to see written down what I’ve been trying to say.

    Great summary and I can see how from a perspective of progress to our authoring language this is good in some ways but isn’t picture just Object with a different name? Why have we not extended the existing img tag to allow for better width and height controls?

    There’s a long long discussion here and I am sure it will be rolling on more now we have some browser support to experiment with. This can’t be the final solution though.

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  43. How about a little help from our friend the all mighty coders developing web servers so on the fly lossy scaling and compression based on the style sheet parameters defined by the Web Designer could be an standard extension.

    Wouldn’t it would be a more elegant solution to summit a HQ master an modern format like JPEG XR and then have the server scale and compress it on the fly for maximum for the desired quality representations across any screen size and devices.

    It’s a similar concept of what we already do with color profiles for each printer, screen and scanner model. A “simple” system, yet more complex that what has been requested from the Web Server, which enables the designers to abstract themselves from hardware (ceteris paribus) and enables them to accurately render and proof what would be the final output when it get backs from the printing press.

    For me that’s where responsive design shoud go.

    Please, don’t tell me that the servers will overload because they’ll not, as long as, they’re coded right. The problem is “lazy coding” and not a lack of resources (vast amounts of resources tend to derive in “Lazy Coding” and then “vast amounts” stop to be so vast and become not enough).
    “Optimize, when you finish optimizing you code the optimize it a little bit more; ‘cause it shall always be room for further optimization.”

    “Less is more” by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

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  44. Hi, not sure on the img src tag - shouldnt you use srcset else you will be downloading 2 images before polyfill kicks in?

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  45. Thanks for the article Eric, it’s a great help for me as I’m catching up on the changes in front-end development.

    I am confused by Snippet 10 however: the first <source> has a min-width and images down to 480px wide, while the second <source> has 640px and 320px. I cannot think of when the 480w image would be used, as by the time the screen is narrow enough, the width is less than 36em?

    Alternatively, if that’s not true, when would the square be shown?

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  46. Hi Eric, have you inspected Crazy Quilt using Chrome’s Canary browser? I’m using the mobile emulator iPhone 4 view and it breaks for me, it seems to either lock up loading the images or simply ignore the layout entirely.
    So what is the bottom line here for a production web application with such sparse support from mainstream browsers? Use media queries and load alternate css files appropriately?

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  47. Excellent article. Now to consume every bit of intelligence from it.

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  48. You guys should check out what we did for the Get Pre-Approved form at the top of the site that we used gravity forms for.  Do a search for VA Loans Finance and IOM Partners of Houston, TX.

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  49. Very informative post. But I am not in favor of the solution which you provided for responsive image problem because this is a very complex and difficult to manage.

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  50. Please clarify what wood nymphs are so people don’t have their comments automatically deleted for a term they don’t understand.

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  51. wow, great article.  THANKS for breaking down srcset and picture so clearly!

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  52. If you ask me, I think we’re barking up the wrong tree.

    It seems that it would make most sense to look at image formats. Consider an interlaced/progressive JPG. If it can progressively load quality, why can’t progressively loading the image size work?

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  53. I got a question about sizes=”(min-width: 41.25em) 41.25em, 100vw”.

    You say, that in media queries it takes the browser’s default em relative size. So shouldn’t the media query min-width: 41.25em still be 33em?

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  54. There are two interesting things I’ve noticed. First, the quote at the top from Einstein: “The devil has put a penalty on all things we enjoy in life.”

    I believe it wasn’t the devil who did that. It was the people. They were the ones who made this insanely simple task of displaying an image a huge, complicated issue.

    And the other thing I’ve noticed is that after all this great writeup, the article image at the top, is not responsive! Now what are the odds of preaching and practicing something completely different.

    Here’s another oddity. People are worried so much about saving 40KB download, but at the same time they don’t have an issue paying $120/month for an unlimited data plan. DUH! If you’re so worried about kilobytes and saving the planet, purchase the cheapest data plan. People are just so out of touch with everything lately.

    You saved 40KB of download. Great. At what cost? You had to store 3 times as many images on the server. Pfff.

    I’m not saying all this responsive image blah blah is not great and doesn’t make sense. It is great. And it does make sense. Just not common sense.

    Eventually people will realize in the (hopefully near) future, that they made everything so insanely complicated that they just need to return to basics and get a newspaper to read. A pencil and paper to draw. And walk over to the neighbor to talk.

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  55. We did some cool stuff with Visual Composer in WordPress after we were having hugely annoying issues by trying to use the responsive display using Revolution Slider.  We inserted a “row” into the visual editor, set the size of the block to “Fill Width” and set the background image of the container’s width to 1920 so that it filled most people’s browser-width, even if they were larger.  Rev Slider kept not ever playing nicely and we kept having to try all these hacks to, in the end, make it unsuccessful and just revert to the way we did it.  I don’t want to URL spam but don’t hesitate to ask in case you’d like to see it in action.

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  56. Has anyone ever played around with a responsive image service like Respondy or ReSRCit ?

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  57. I’m a total newbie here so this article was way over my head for now.

    How does all of this relate to frameworks such as Bootstrap? Don’t most frameworks these days already make their content, including images, responsive?

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  59. Sorry, commenting is closed on this article.