Comments on What Really Matters: Focusing on Top Tasks

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  1. This was a practical and comprehensive post. Thanks Gerry. Curious what software you used to collect and then analyze the responses?

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  2. This was a really informative article. If only all the companies we work with who create concept and design would take a similar approach, we could get websites that actually work, instead of the plain simple “let’s put a big slideshow on top” websites where the pages are dominated by “gut-feeling” design instead of actually doing some research.

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  3. A great article. The thing that really strikes me about your article is how you prioritize tasks over user personas. We have been working with a very similar methodology. I am really interested in how you then apply this task list to the next stage of ux (which I assume is journey mapping) without a persona to pin this on.
    Maybe you can suggest a book or resource that I could explore?

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  4. Hi Gezza! Great article. Quick q: is the survey sent to ‘all’ customers? Or do you do a representative sample? We have distinct audiences with varying tasks. I can just envisage people at work saying “well, you didn’t send it to so-and-so’ type of customer, that’s why my task isn’t high up the list” blah blah etc

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  5. Excellent article Gerry! In fact, my colleagues and I have read your book The Stranger’s Long Neck back in early 2014. Since then, we have worked hard to convince senior management of the benefits of the top task approach. And with success.

    Albeit with limited budget and time (isn’t that almost always the case though?) we set to work and did our top task research, with help from an external top task advisor. We tested the time it took for people to complete the top tasks, undertook small-scale user testing, made changes on two of our websites (a Dutch and an English one), and once again tested the time it took to complete the top tasks. The results were quite stunning:

    • An average speed increase of top task completion of 42% on the Dutch website (
    • An average speed increase of top task completion of 50% on the English website (

    Additionally, the tool we used to measure top task completion time (UsabilityHub), also measures the percentage of first time completers. Thus, we gained insight into how many people of our test group managed to complete top tasks, without clicking one single wrong link. That percentage also increased dramatically (in one case from 0% to 75%, with a test group of 20 users).

    So we feel we’ve made a giant leap forward in making the above two websites more user-friendly. But we also feel we’re nowhere near finished. There’s still a lot to do.

    One of the biggest challenges we face right now, is getting real dedication from senior management. On the one hand we hear “great results, go on with the top task approach”, and on the other hand we hear “Oh yeah, put this on the website, and this and that, and help us on this (not top task related) project, and that one”.

    In the last four months we haven’t done anything that relates to top task management. Part of that is due to a merger of our organisation and another one, at the start of 2015. But another part is – I believe – a lack of a clear governance structure, and a lack of clear priorities.

    I have read some of Lisa Welchman’s work, which sounds great, but also feels a bit complex or too big. I’m very interested in your ideas on how to integrate top task management into the DNA of an organisation, from the viewpoint of an enthusiastic and ambitious webteam.

    Do you feel a top task approach can become a governance structure by itself?

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  6. Great article! I wish most of my clients could act accordingly :)
    Most don’t really know what they want…

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  7. Such a great article! Thanks for this.

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  8. “Page visits reflect what you have, not necessarily what customers want.”

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  9. Great article Gerry and as you know I’m a great believer of the TopTask method and use it myself.

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  10. A great article. Whenever we are looking at how are sites are structured, or building a new product I continually repeat the mantra: “so when people come here, what do they want to do? What are the jobs they want to get done?” We haven’t done the extensive top tasks exercise that you have outlined here (I’d like to!), but even at the simplest level just asking those two questions has really helped our main website and helped us to find a focus that works.

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  11. Nicely explained!  It can be challenging to help stakeholders see that their website isn’t just about what they want to say—it’s about task-driven users.

    A question: do you think the rush to create responsive websites may have organizations emphasizing design over functionality—or will responsive web design help people improve usability?  I’m seeing a bit of both out there.

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  12. I used the “top tasks” method successfully for an educational institution. I was quite sceptical because of the need to get people to go through such a long list - and in fact in pilot testing *everybody* commented on this as being onerous.

    However, we got some hundreds of responses (we offered a couple of iPads as prizes) from a range of people (current & prospective students, locally and overseas, and various staff.)

    The cleanliness of the resulting data made it quite clear that people were attending to the list and not just ticking the first few boxes to get through it. (We randomised the presentation order for the list and had clear sets of “winner” tasks.)

    One change I made was that instead of using 5 for most important, I used 1 to 5 with 1 being most important. I have no data to justify this change, other than a feeling that “1” and “first” would be more strongly associated (a semantic point rather than a methodological one).

    In any case, we got great data that was quite convincing for the institution. Of course, it’s really important to go out and do the research that generates the long-list in the first place, and to have appropriate collaboration and buy-in.

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  13. Website top task analysis; after so many years, easy and still true

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  14. Fantastic article Gerry, as always :) If only everyone ‘got it’... :)

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  15. We recently undertook a Top Task analysis for our SaaS product.  While there are similarities to informational websites, there may be some differences too.  We’re still in the analysis phase, but we’re actually pretty happy with the results thus far - we got a “long neck” and are finding some top tasks correlate with other metrics in the organization (such as top page views).  I was wondering if anyone had done Top Tasks analyses on software products that had any thoughts on key differences?  Or maybe there is no difference, a task is a task?

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  16. Great article, great technique. I’ve been using it for years at the University of Edinburgh, since discovering Gerry’s work. I can’t recommend it enough. Combine it with analytics data, CRM data and usability testing for maximum value.

    As well as using the technique as described here, I’ve also used it for prioritisation of software features development (it’s essentially a remote version of the agile user story poker chip technique) and as a means to gather positive/negative feedback on IT service provision.

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  17. “Sometimes we leave in a word or phrase just to prove that it will not get a big vote. If there’s a buzzword that is all the rage internally, consider leaving it on the list just to see how customers react.”

    Excellent, thanks so much Gerry!

    I used top taks approach like this for restructure of intranet site a few years ago, and am hoping to use itr agina soon on a public facing page set. Of course, ther biggest challenge is getting the internal buy in to do it this way and then (especially) to proceed with new strcuture on basis of the results.

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  18. Awesome article, Gerry!

    We’ve used this technique at The Good to reliably arrive at what matters most to customers. In fact, all our employees read Gerry’s book, The Stranger’s Long Neck, before working on any client projects so they can integrate the philosophy completely.

    The only way to get any kind of ROI on ecommerce or lead generation site improvements is to invest in understanding what people are actually trying to do, then helping them do those (few) things easily.

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  19. Thanks for a great article, Gerry. It’s a constant battle to keep your visitors as the priority, especially because people can get really defensive, protective, and territorial about their content. You’ve given me something to pass along to my team when we’re in the midst of it!

    It reminds me a bit of something Kurt Vonnegut said - “Another flaw in the human character is that everybody wants to build and nobody wants to do maintenance.”

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  20. The article is really good, thanks for sharing with usprofessional software developers

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  21. What resonated with me about this article is the idea of tiny tasks. I work with large institutions that think they have thousands of use cases. But the majority are either works of fiction or edge cases. They waste so much time and effort on tiny tasks and they so often make it hard for people to complete the top tasks.

    I spend too much time getting organisations to prioritise on what matters. They are always getting distracted by scenarios that rarely if ever occur.

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  22. Gerry - Thanks for sharing Top Tasks Management with the world. It’s a quick, useful method that has proven itself once and again for stakeholders in Google Search. The pattern that emerges every single time (image under Step 4 above) is nothing but powerful and amazing.

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  23. First of all, thanks for a great article, Gerry! Although almost everything is said here already, I would like to share some experiences from Norway.

    In a ongoing project to develop a new online solution for all Norwegian hospitals, we used both focus groups (qualitative methodology) and top task analysis (quantitative methodology). Both methods have proved to be very useful.

    —Cutting through the opinions—
    The results from top task survey were unambiguous. We discovered the most important questions our users needed us to answer was: “what happens before, during and after treatment.” This finding was confirmed in both focus groups and statistical analyzes.

    What were the outcomes?

    Firstly, we got a foundation on which to develop the new concept (take a look at the prototype here - far from complete, but gives a picture of a relatively uncompromising focus on the top tasks:

    Secondly (and just as important), we were given a well-proofed argument - a tool to cut through various opinions. As responsible for the concept, I found that very effective. We no longer believe something about our users needs, we know. This gives us some peace to work in the project.

    —Building the business case—
    Focusing on the top tasks is not a capitulation for the users on the expense of what is important for the business. Why should we care about the fact that patients, families and primary health care want information about what happens before, during and after treatment? Altruism? Yes maybe. But I think the key to gaining acceptance for focusing on user needs, is building a business case around those needs. In our case we can point to the studies showing that a well-informed patient is less costly to treat than patients without this knowledge.

    Voila!, We now have the business case, and the web is no longer a nice-to-have add on to the core activity at the hospitals, it has become part of the core business, namely a part of the treatment.

    —Understanding the top tasks—

    We are basically skeptical of using focus groups to identify user needs. Users are not designers, and they often uncritically ask for an endless list of content and functionality.

    But the focus groups have helped us understand the top tasks.
    We now relize we will address people in a vulnerable part of life. They are extremely information-hungry. They do not distinguish between medical and practical information, they want it all in the right context. And they process information as part of the treatment.

    We summed the findings in a simple story (the patient´s story), witch tells us what is hiding behind the slightly cold phrase “What happens
    before, during and after treatment”:

    “When I became ill, I had to orient myself in a new and frightening reality. I wondered what was wrong with me, what kind of treatment I would get and what would happen to me in the recovery.
    I also wanted to find the hospital that could give me the best treatment I was going through.

    Prior to hospitalization I also had many practical question: Where can I park my car? Which building should I show up at, and where is the front door? Can my spouse be with me in the hospital?
    Those were all questions running through my mind.

    I found it difficult to find the answers.”

    We are now going to change that!

    Sorry for the long comment; I didn’t have time to write a short one:)

    With a lot of love from Oslo,

    Eirik (and the rest of the project team)

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  24. I rely heavily on this methodology for my organization’s website.  What surprised me about this was how easy it is to convey to the employees and content creators.  Other methods that help to improve the overall site experience for our audience require a lot of explaining.  As soon as someone sees this, the know immediately how to improve their content, how it should be positioned on the web, and even what no to do or ask for.

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  25. What I find rewarding about Top Tasks Management is the energy and insights we gain by collaborating with people in organisations in gathering the longlist. It is the process that counts, and working in this way assures that people understand and accept the results.

    In Top Task Management I see a way of making great websites that work, and that really is the best publicity an organisation can get.

    So thanks Gerry for your inspiring work and sharing your method!

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  26. We used this system successfully for three software divisions at IBM. As you may imagine, each was a complex business with 100s of products and 1000s of opinions of “What people want.” This survey was a great leveler. We gathered over 500 randomized responses per software division (with geographical spread) and quickly determined the top tasks from a list of about 90.

    A few things we did that others may consider:
    1) Aggregate tasks into groups. A number of specific tasks really boiled down to the question: “Show me how it works.” (One of our top three tasks)
    2) Infer the character of the “herd”. When you see the top tasks, you can make some judgements on where the bulk of your visitors are in a buying cycle. (Hint…they are not at the “What is reporting?” level)
    3) Do studies for two or more divisions if you can. You will likely find out that parts of your business that think they have “special” customers & needs really don’t. All web visitors are generally looking for the same things.

    This process is wonderful practical medicine. However, you will find that people still chase fads in design rather than the real needs of visitors. Back up your Top Tasks information with constant demonstrations of click data. Gerry’s process tells you what people want; Click data will confirm it.

    Good luck with driving organizational change that will matter to your web visitors.

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  27. We had the privilege of working with Gerry at the OECD, an evidence-based international organisation known mostly for its comparable statistics. We did the Customer Satisfaction Index, Top Task Identification, Top Task Testing, and the Search Performance Indicator with him. Without the evidence we collected from our external audiences, we would never have been able to get a real grasp of their needs, nor convince our internal stakeholders (e.g. policy analysts, statisticians, comms staff) to let go of their organisational egos and opinions. We separately asked our internal stakeholders to take the Customer Satisfaction and Top Task surveys. It was almost funny to compare the results between the external and internal audiences. It proved that staff really didn’t understand the needs of our website users, and that staff just had opinions based on… nothing.

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  28. Business Wales is the Welsh government’s information, advice and guidance service for businesses in Wales.

    We at the Business Wales online team manage and maintain the web site – communicating practical information to general and specialist business audiences. We’re also responsible for a range of social media channels (LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook, with more to be launched soon), and an e-newsletter.

    All these are popular channels, but we wanted some concrete and measurable information to establish:
    •      what information customers needed most
    •      whether we were providing it
    •      whether customers could find and use it easily
    •      whether we could do better in terms of making content easily discoverable and usable

    We contracted Customer Carewords (Gerry McGovern’s organisation) and SOCITM to help us do this.

    Gerry opened the project with a presentation of the Top Tasks approach. Whilst this might seem simple, looking at others’ websites and communications with fresh eyes, I notice how some organisations are making popular and basic tasks difficult to find and interact with. And, conversely, how they give disproportionately-prominent coverage to less-popular content.

    Since the initial meeting we have started evaluating, using Gerry’s tried and tested process of identifying and filtering tasks undertaken on the site, and then refining these and, by using an online survey, confirming these with customers.

    The next steps of the work will be to further analyse how easy (or not) it is for customers to undertake and complete these tasks, and to take action based on these findings.

    So far, we have found the Top Tasks approach to be very effective in helping us identify what is most important to customers. It offers a through and systematic process to identifying and filtering Top Tasks, and then confirming findings with users. We have found our customers very eager to respond to our research, and are looking forward to working with customers on active user testing.

    We’ve also started using the Top Tasks approach in planning our marketing and communications activity, in particular when drafting and scheduling social media and e-newsletters.

    My reservation, is that too-rigid a following of the Top Tasks approach would mean that the most prominent content would respond to what the customer already knows and wants (the known-known) leaving little room for introducing the unknown-unknown – but I am confident the system can allow for necessary flexibility.

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  29. Excellent summary, Gerry!  As you point out, at Cisco, we’ve wholeheartedly adopted the “top task management” approach in most of what we do for web and mobile. It has made a tremendous difference in everything from our support experiences to how we support navigation across our sites for tasks related to buying, product evaluation, consumption, and more.

    I want to reassure digital teams that just because you focus on top customer tasks doesn’t mean you need to ignore tasks related to your business goals – in fact, business KPIs are usually supported by top tasks.  A good example is the one Gerry gives related to financing of products. This was a task that users rated as low on their overall priority lists, but upon further study what we realized is that it’s very important at specific places in the customer’s buying journey. So, it’s a function we’ve begun to make very visible later within the buying journey – where it’s more important – than as a first awareness step for customers.

    Another thing Gerry touches on in the comments is personas. We’ve found personas to be valuable in informing our strategy, content strategy, and personalization strategies. But, as Gerry mentions, don’t necessarily organize your whole site around job roles or personas, because this may not work for your users.  For example, many personas are interested in Products or Solutions and we’ve watched multiple job roles (support, administrators, product evaluators, etc) gravitate to these areas of our sites for different reasons. (They may access the same products areas for support, or to research new products or to compare products between one another, or to upgrade, or to find related solutions, etc.) But, understanding the behavior of different personas in completing top tasks across a site is certainly valuable.

    The most useful thing about a “top tasks” methodology for us is that it gives us a way to measure and manage progress on the usability and effectiveness of key experiences over time. It lets us focus continually on improving the interactions our customers, partners, and other key audiences have with us.

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  30. Great article Gerry. We, at Neo Insight, have been using your top task approach since 2007, after you gave your Master Class in Ottawa, Canada. Since that time, we have done several Top Task Identification projects as well as numerous Top Task Performance Indicator projects with both private and public sector organizations.

    The Top Task process has been extremely valuable in breaking down internal silos because the core team members used in the shortlisting process are drawn from across the organization. They start to see the interdependencies within their organization, the amount of rework going on, and the lack of sufficient web governance to really target the needs of their customers for self-service; that is for being able to get things DONE on their websites.

    We’ve found the Top Tasks results really help management to prioritize what actions are going to have the largest payback. Having objective data also minimizes the amount of time wasted in arguments or discussion based solely on opinion. It gives employees in the trenches the ammunition they need to influence and improve the higher level decisions made about web content, web development, web budgets, etc.

    One part of the analysis, the Empathy Score, often has a significant impact on changing senior management perspectives when they realize they are not their customers and that their view of customer needs often varies significantly from the actual needs. Once this perspective changes, they get fully behind Top Task Management as the optimal strategy for improving customer satisfaction, task completion rates, sales, and many other organizational metrics. As you’ve often mentioned, Gerry, “You can’t manage what you can’t measure”.

    As clients move along the digital maturity curve, they realize that web funding cannot be project based. It must be based on an operations budget focused on continuous improvement, not major reworks every 3 or 4 years. They realize the focus has to be on task management, not content management and not on managing new technologies.

    Ultimately, they extend their task based focus to addressing cross-channel customer interactions, ensuring the web experience is integrated with other channels which all complement and support one another.

    Always looking forward to more from you Gerry. Thanks!!!

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  31. Hi Gerry, great article, as always - had to share it with some colleagues :)

    Was wondering how you collect the data. Is the users of a given website prompted with the survey or?

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  32. Excellent article!!

    As part of the team at Cisco involved with user research and the Top Task Analysis Framework, I have seen the effectiveness of this approach. In my discussions with stakeholders and other researchers across Cisco, I emphasize what I feel are the two core questions for anyone working online:

    1) What are your users trying to do? (NOT the same as what they are actually doing)
    2) How well are they able to do what they are trying to do?

    It is vitally important to make the distinction between “what users do (i.e. click on)” and “what they are trying to do.” In talking to stakeholders, they often list web metric data as synonymous with “what users are trying to do” (if they have any data at all). That is a dangerous position since it assumes that all users are accomplishing what they set out to do in the first place.

    The beauty of the Top Task Analysis Framework is that it measures what users ACTUALLY are trying to accomplish and also whether they are able to be successful in those tasks. Not simply seeing what users are currently doing as they potentially struggle through a confusing interface. That’s why I promote your Top Task Analysis Framework as a “problem discovery and measurement” technique. This allows us to determine the Big Three:

    1) SUCCESS/FAILURE: Are users successful in doing what they are trying to do?
    2) SPEED: Are they efficient? (can they do it quickly?)
    3) CONFIDENCE: Are they confident that they were successful or are they unsure of the result?

    When you add the visceral experience of a stakeholder actually watching user after user struggle with key tasks and score it with numerical values, that’s a great research methodology that can really promote change within an organization - as it has done at Cisco.

    The TPI has a prominent position at Cisco and we thank you and your team from Customer Carewords and Gord Hopkins and his team from Neo Insight for all of the great work!

    Jeffrey Davis, Ph.D.
    User Research Lead
    Cisco Systems

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  33. We’ve been monitoring the performance of the top tasks on Cisco’s support website for more than 4 years. 

    The Task Performance Indicator (TPI) is becoming a key metric that our executives track because it’s an actionable metric for experience. 

    Scores correlate much more closely with efforts to reform the site than other metrics do (such as Customer Satisfaction score, which is typically a lagging indicator of customer experience.)

    We’ve been able to show improvement in the score, largely due to the fact that the study reveals not only the impact of impediments to task completion, but also the nature of the impediments and comments by the user.  These details lead to specific improvements.

    Our repetitive testing cycles drive improvements in an iterative process.

    It’s not the only tool in our toolbox, but it’s a very important and effective one.

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  34. It should be added that this approach works on websites of all sizes, not just big corporate or organisational websites.

    We build websites for small businesses, where it’s easy to get things wrong even with a five or ten page website. Even with a small business site it’s really easy to overcomplicate things or even miss vital information.

    Taking a slimmed down version of the Top Tasks approach - in particular, addressing tasks rather than content - produces websites that are effective (in that they bring new business and/or money), do well in search and perform well across all devices - the brevity Top Tasks encourages is essential for mobile screens.

    I first came across Top Tasks while working in local government in 2010. Three years ago I left that job to start my own business building websites for small businesses using the Top Tasks approach.

    Apart from producing successful websites (often on a tight budget), the approach is a great way of protecting clients from their worst ideas. Everything on a site has to justify its place, rather than having to justify NOT adding the client’s pet idea.

    Thanks for the inspiration, Gerry!

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  35. We are HUGE advocates of Gerry’s top task testing methodology at our company and evangelize it to everyone we talk with - both internally and externally. It’s really helped us fight against some of the ‘bright shiny object’ disease and the tendency for everyone to have an opinion of what we put on our webpages (and where/how) - because we have data to back it up! Our customers and partners do this (and not that) and when we organize content this way, they struggle, and when we organize it that way, they succeed! Clear and simple. Not easy to do mind you, but a fact-based approach that wins over colleagues and executives alike every time, and clears the way for us to make significant changes (and prove whether or not they are working for the most important folks - our users).

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  36. Thanks for the wonderful read, Gerry!

    I think this could be a useful approach for my team and I’m wondering if there is a resource for using analytics (or some other method/tool) to gain insight for sites that are content heavy (such as a government website) where a successful transaction might be providing a piece of contact information, downloading a document/form, or more often, redirecting a user to an external application to complete a task.

    I know we could use customer feedback, stakeholder reviews, and peer website research, but could we also use site behavior and search analytics beyond page traffic and search to help us first, establish top tasks and second, measure their success?

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  37. Great, thanks so much Gerry ..

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  38. Gerry, thank you. Do you have thoughts on identifying tasks externally and outside of what exists? What if the top 5 tasks you survey are ranked, but missing something important? Further, thoughts on how to address when that “something further” falls outside of current business mission or goals. Your insight is much appreciated.

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  39. This is great Gerry!
    Thanks a lot for the thorough explanation!

    In the survey, what’s the reason why you ask people to score the tasks they choose?

    Wouldn’t you be able to get the same result if you asked them to just pick 5?

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  40. Bit late to this article, having listened to Gerry on Jen Simmons’ Web ahead podcast.

    In the podcast you mention that councils tend to share similar top tasks.

    I wonder if the idea of basing initial top task identification on sector top tasks would be completely antithetical to the approach you outline?

    I suspect that the top tasks across University course websites for example would be pretty similar. We know that universities love to refer to League tables.

    Sector wide top tasks would be a great measure of performance,  though I’m dreaming if I think people would be willing to share their top task research.

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  41. Hey Gerry,

    This is a really useful article, as are some of the comment! I’m reading your book at the moment and this has really helped me to start making sense of it all. I’ve joined a new team and have inherited a previous round of TTA that appears to be a ‘light’ version of your method. It’s set up as a card sort (Optimal Sort) rather than as the survey you describe and asks participants to place a single card/item in each of five categories named priority 1, priority 2 etc. There is no way of voting just prioritising 1-5. Is it essential to ask participants to vote in the way you describe in your book or is it sufficient to ask them to prioritise their (e.g.) five most important tasks? Does the large number of total votes (15 x #voters) in your method mean that the output is more reliable/robust?

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  42. Also, how did you produce the pie chart with a line for each task? I love it. So clear. I understood immediately.

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  43. A great article. Harga Ban Bridgestune Ecopia Ep150
    - The thing that really strikes me about your article is how you prioritize tasks over user personas. We have been working with a very similar methodology. I am really interested in how you then apply this task list to the next stage of ux (which I assume is journey mapping) without a persona to pin this on.

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  44. Very good post helped me with the excellent steps, congratulations to the author Gerry McGovern success

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  45. Sorry, commenting is closed on this article.